Martial describes a match between Priscus and Veruswho fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each. Two other gladiatorial categories also took their name from defeated tribes, the Galli Gauls and Thraeces Thracians. Referees oversaw the action, and probably stopped the fight as soon as one of the participants was seriously wounded. Whilst the other Celts wore trousers and light cloaks, the Gaesatae preferred to fight naked. The fact that some Celtic warriors fought naked was also pointed out by Diodorus Siculus, though this author does not name the tribe s whose warriors fought in such a manner. The Romans had already heard of these splendid accoutrements, but their generals had taught them that a soldier should be rough to look on, not adorned with gold and silver but putting his trust in iron and in courage Gladiator gangs were used by Caesar and others to overawe and "persuade".
Preliminary events included bloodless, sometimes farcical, duels between paegniariiwho likely fought with wooden weapons.
The Roman Gladiator
The enemy, besides their other warlike preparation, had made their battle-line to glitter with new and splendid arms. From the 60s AD female gladiators appear as rare and "exotic markers of exceptionally lavish spectacle". Osprey Publishing. Harvard University Press. In any event, messengers were sent to the Gaesatae urging them to join the Celtic coalition in their war against the Romans. In the Eastern provinces of the later Empire the state archiereis combined the roles of editorImperial cult priest and lanistagiving gladiatoria munera in which the use of sharp weapons seems an exceptional honour. A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novice novicius could negotiate with his lanista or editor for the partial or complete payment of his debt.